Food Additive Reactions are Intolerance to artificial and natural chemicals found in packaged, processed and “take-away” fast foods.

by Dr Adrian Morris

Preservatives (to give food a longer shelf-life)

The Sulphites
These chemicals in the form of gases cause lung irritation and may trigger asthma. They are commonly found in liquid form in cold drinks and fruit juice concentrates, but also in wine and sprayed onto foods to keep them fresh and prevent discoloration or browning. They are used to preserve smoked and processed meats, dried fruit (apricots) and salads. In the solid form, sulphites can cause urticaria when ingested. ( E220 – E227)

Sulphur dioxide, Sodium sulphite, Sodium bisulphite, Potassium bisulphite and Potassium metasulphite.

Benzoic acid and Parabens
Benzoates and Parabens have antibacterial and anti fungal properties for prevention of food spoilage. These agents are added to pharmaceutical and food products such as drinks (sugar free Coke) and occur naturally in prunes, cinnamon, tea and berries. They may cause urticaria, asthma and angioedema. (E 210 – E 219 )

Sodium benzoate, Methylparaben, Propylparaben and Heptylparaben.

Antioxidants
Fat and oils in food turn rancid when exposed to air. Synthetic phenolic antioxidants (BHA and BHT) prevent this spoilage happening but can trigger asthma, rhinitis and urticaria. (E320 – 321 )

Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT)).

Flavour enhancers (to enhance food palatability)

Aspartame a low calorie sweetener can occasionally trigger urticaria (nettle rash), itchy hives and swelling of the body.

Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) which can trigger the “Chinese Restaurant Syndrome” of headache and burning plus tightness in the chest, neck and face.  Found in packet soups and instant drinks. (E 620 – E 635)

Colourings (make food visually more attractive)

All colourings must now be labeled. They can trigger hives, urticaria, asthma and generalized allergic reactions.  ( E 100 – E 180 )

Azo dyes (Tartrazine) and Non-azo dyes (erythrocine)

Nitrates and Nitrites give meat a pink colour to look more attractive and found in bacon, salami and frankfurters. ( E 249 – E 252 )

Emulsifiers and stabilisers

Stop oil and water components separating, as in ketchup and mayonnaise, but do not cause adverse reactions.

Naturally occurring substances in food causing adverse reactions

Vaso-active amines
Natural Histamine, Serotonin and Tyramine occur in some ripe cheeses, fish, cured sausage, red wine, chocolate and pickled vegetables and can induce cramping, flushing, headache and palpitations in a dose related manner.

Caffeine found in foods, medication, tea, coffee and Coca-Cola induces dose dependent agitation, palpitations, nausea and tremors.

Salicylates (aspirin-like naturally occurring chemicals)
Salicylates induce urticaria, asthma and nasal polyps to develop. They are found in Curry powder, paprika, dried thyme,  oranges, apricots, ginger, honey, berries and fruit skins, tea and almonds.  Salicylate sensitive individuals also tend to have adverse reactions to benzoates and tartrazine.

Always read all packaged food labels, legislation now ensures that additives must be clearly labelled. E Numbers – all additives used within the European Community must be allocated an E number.

Colourings: (E100-180)
Tartrazine E102, Sunset Yellow E110

Flavourings: (E620-635)
Monosodium Glutamate E620

Preservatives: (E200-297)
Benzoates (E210-219), Sulphites (E220-227), Nitrates (E249-252)

Antioxidants: (E320-321)
BHA (E320) & BHT (E321)

General rules for preservatives and additives:

Many E number additives are completely harmless.  Safe E numbers include: E101 Riboflavin (Vitamin B2), E200-203 Sorbate derivatives, E260 Acetic acid, E280 Propionic acid, E300-304 Ascorbic acid derivatives (Vitamin C), E330-333 Citric acids, E412 Guar gum and E578 Calcium gluconate are just a few examples,

No accurate diagnostic tests are yet available – so be suspicious of any advertised in the media.

Relatively few adverse reactions are actually reported when compared to nuts, eggs and other foodstuffs.

However, adverse hyperactive behavioural changes in children have been documented with excess amounts of artificial food colourings and sodium benzoate preservatives in the diet.  This was shown in the Isle of Wight study of pre-school children by Warner et al (Arch Dis Child 2004;89:506-511)

Read food labels carefully, keep a food diary to identify offending additives and preservatives.

Melkersson-Rosenthal Syndrome is a rare disorder possibly triggered by sodium benzoate and characterised by lip granulomas, facial paralysis and a fissured tongue.  It may occur in atopic individuals.

Reference:

Ortolani C, Bruinjzeel Koomen C, Bengtsonn U, Wuthrich B et al.  Controversial aspects of adverse reactions to food. Allergy 1999 54 27-45

Copyright Dr Adrian Morris
 July 2012